The New York Giants’ failure to rent a Black coach

Three days earlier than Brian Flores was scheduled to interview with the New York Giants for his or her head teaching emptiness in January, he says he acquired an sudden textual content message from New England Patriots Coach Invoice Belichick.

Black Out

This soccer season, The Washington Submit is analyzing the NFL’s decades-long failure to equitably promote Black coaches to prime jobs regardless of the multibillion-dollar league being fueled by Black gamers.

Within the textual content, Belichick seemingly congratulated Flores, his former assistant coach, on listening to he can be provided the Giants’ job, one of the crucial coveted positions within the NFL. In line with Flores, Belichick had mistaken him for a special Brian — Brian Daboll, the offensive coordinator of the Buffalo Payments who additionally beforehand labored for Belichick. The implication of the errant textual content was that the Giants had made their determination earlier than a ultimate interview with Flores. The day after Flores spoke with the workforce at their headquarters, the Giants introduced they have been hiring Daboll, who’s like each different head coach within the workforce’s 97-year historical past in at the very least one regard: He’s White.

Flores, who’s Black, included the textual content alternate as a part of his landmark race-discrimination lawsuit in opposition to the NFL and its groups, particularly naming the Giants and two different franchises and accusing them of holding “sham” interviews with Black candidates, allegations the Giants referred to as “disturbing and simply false.” The class-action swimsuit has forged a pointy highlight on the NFL and notably on the Giants, considered one of its most storied franchises and in addition considered one of 13 which have by no means employed a Black full-time head coach.

An examination of the Giants’ hiring practices, primarily based on interviews with greater than two dozen coaches, former staff, brokers, executives and business specialists, signifies the trail that led to Daboll’s choice was common. These interviewed spoke of an insular group that, whereas not overtly racist, does little systemically to mitigate unconscious bias that disadvantages Black coaches. They described a course of constructed on private connections and referrals from overwhelmingly White networks, with largely White hiring panels and little accountability on variety — a direct distinction to what variety and inclusion specialists contemplate finest practices.

Coming off the workforce’s fifth straight shedding season, Giants proprietor John Mara was decided to seek out the person who might revitalize his $6 billion franchise. He and different franchise leaders — together with his brother Chris, a workforce govt; co-owner Steve Tisch; and Basic Supervisor Joe Schoen — interviewed a handful of candidates, and Mara trusted his management workforce.

Since Tim Mara, John’s grandfather, based the workforce by paying a $500 admittance charge in 1925, the Giants have operated underneath the household’s route, leaning on their very own instincts and handpicked advisers. That’s the way in which John has dealt with the household enterprise since his father, Wellington Mara, died in 2005.

From the surface, the Giants seem like a franchise the place a Black coach might thrive. John Mara is a member of the league’s office variety committee, and in 2007 he employed Jerry Reese to be the third Black normal supervisor in NFL historical past. However to some who’ve had shut dealings with the franchise, it was no shock when its twentieth head coach ended up wanting just like the primary 19. They noticed a enterprise devoid of the sorts of protocols which are widespread in lots of massive companies however curiously are largely missing within the NFL, which regardless of workforce homeowners’ huge wealth and energy is a largely decentralized operation consisting of 32 unbiased franchises that always conduct themselves extra like mom-and-pop retailers than billion-dollar entities.

Marc Ross, who labored within the Giants’ entrance workplace from 2007 to 2017, mentioned that when Mara, who’s White, footage a pacesetter of his workforce, there’s “no question” he imagines a White man. Ross, who’s Black and now an govt with the upstart XFL, mentioned he doesn’t contemplate Mara to be racist, however he believes such bias has held again Black leaders throughout the league.

“There’s inherent and unconscious biases,” mentioned Ross, a onetime candidate for the workforce’s normal supervisor function who famous the franchise handled him effectively. “I heard that tons when I did my GM interviews: ‘We thought you were amazing. You’re outstanding. You’ll be a GM one day. We just felt comfortable with this guy.’ … And I think Black candidates, Black coaches just don’t get that benefit of the doubt of ‘We feel more comfortable.’ Why not? Because these owners are used to being around certain people and they’re comfortable with certain people.”

[Perspective: NFL owners are committed to diversity — until it’s their turn to make a hire]

The Giants denied Flores’s allegations. Pat Hanlon, the workforce spokesman, mentioned the corporate actively seeks “diverse candidates to be interviewed by a diverse interview panel that represents a cross-section of our existing employees and community.”

Hanlon mentioned the workforce does its personal analysis “based on our observations, results and track record of candidates and references” and makes use of lists compiled by the league workplace in addition to conversations with the Fritz Pollard Alliance, a company devoted to rising variety within the NFL.

“We strongly believe that racial diversity, including among our most senior coaching and executive ranks, makes us a stronger and better organization,” Hanlon mentioned, including that the group has participated in variety initiatives prior to now. “John Mara’s leadership on the NFL’s Diversity Committee is a direct reflection of the organization’s commitment to creating more diversity within the Giants organization and the league as a whole.”

Mara declined an interview request by means of Hanlon, citing Flores’s lawsuit. However prior to now, he has acknowledged the Giants’ historical past of by no means using a Black head coach.

LEFT: John Mara’s household has owned the Giants for the reason that franchise was based by his grandfather in 1925. (Seth Wenig/AP) RIGHT: Mara’s Giants have employed 4 head coaches since 2016. (Seth Wenig/AP)

“It’s certainly something I’m aware of,” Mara mentioned in January on the outset of the Giants’ newest teaching search. “At the end of the day, we want to get the right person. I think we have a good, diverse group of candidates right now and will make a decision based on who we think will be the best person to lead us in the future.”

In his first season, Daboll is off to a profitable begin, main the Giants to a 7-3 report. Nonetheless, the workforce’s earlier picks of unproven White leaders who went on to amass unimpressive data supported The Washington Submit’s bigger evaluation of Black coaches’ roles within the NFL, which exhibits White coaches are given possibilities to steer groups by means of a extra numerous set of paths than Black coaches.

[Key findings from ‘Black Out,’ The Post’s series on Black NFL coaches]

Mara, whose earlier three full-time teaching hires compiled a report of 32-61, and the group have a protracted line of supporters who defend the workforce’s selections. They level to Reese, who helped the workforce to 2 Tremendous Bowl titles, as proof that Mara champions Black leaders. And so they say Mara and the Giants lengthy have been on the forefront of discussions on the right way to diversify groups and enhance the Rooney Rule.

For a franchise that lengthy has been a pillar of the league, the absence of a Black head coach hasn’t gone unnoticed. Mara is without doubt one of the workforce homeowners whom NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell typically leans on for counsel on league issues or in instances of disaster, so some coaches and officers view the Giants’ hiring report as a missed alternative — and an emblem of the league’s broader failures.

“It says it all,” mentioned Grambling State College Coach Hue Jackson, who’s Black and beforehand served as coach of the Oakland Raiders and Cleveland Browns. “I give kudos to Pittsburgh, because they’ve done it. Mike Tomlin has done a tremendous job. Pittsburgh, where the Rooney Rule started, wasn’t afraid. Now you’re talking about New York, another one of these flagship organizations, and they have not done it — ever.”

Alongside along with his place on the NFL’s office variety committee, Mara is chair of the highly effective NFL Administration Council’s govt committee, which handles collective bargaining. Apart from a scarcity of variety amongst his personal teaching hires, some query why Mara has not carried out extra to advertise equal alternative from one of many NFL’s most influential perches.

“He’s got more power than, theoretically, anyone,” mentioned one individual intently related to the league’s dynamics, who spoke on the situation of anonymity to debate a workforce proprietor candidly. “Why hasn’t John Mara been the one to stand up? And actually call for some sort of accountability when it comes to diversity or any of this stuff, right? I mean, does he act like the chairman of the board? No.”

Of their obvious lack of intentionality, the Giants function a research of how institutional bias restricts alternative. The NFL’s energy brokers might act with out malice, however in neglecting to deal with their very own blind spots, their actions are simply as detrimental to progress, based on critics.

Simply America’s hottest sports activities league, the NFL typically is considered as a monolith headquartered on New York’s Park Avenue that negotiates 10-figure media rights contracts and employs 32 head coaches and hundreds of gamers. In actuality, the league is a collective of 32 disparate billion-dollar firms, every with its personal historical past and all operated independently with their very own method and elegance on all the pieces from advertising to hiring.

Each offseason, the NFL doesn’t fill roughly six to eight head teaching vacancies; quite, roughly six to eight firms — interconnected however unbiased — search to make one extremely seen rent apiece. The league gives few pointers for a way such hires needs to be made, and the dearth of a standardized and clear course of creates the potential for myriad issues with variety, company specialists say.

Throughout the business, many say the Giants’ hiring report is its personal proof — and that the group has constructed a status that some say wards away Black leaders seeking to rise. One teaching agent, who spoke on the situation of anonymity to guard his shoppers from retribution, mentioned associates inside the league warned him in opposition to sending shoppers to interview with New York.

“When we did the Giants interview, we were told by multiple people not to do it,” the agent mentioned. “[They said:] ‘It was a joke interview. They’re not going to hire a Black head coach. They’re just not.’ But a Black coach can’t turn down an interview: ‘He had an interview with the Giants and didn’t take it? Who does he think he is?’ ”

A revolving door of coaches

After the 2015 season, once they went 6-10 and missed the playoffs for the fourth consecutive season, the Giants compelled out Tom Coughlin, who had twice gained the Tremendous Bowl over his dozen seasons in New York. For the primary time since Wellington Mara’s demise, John Mara would lead a training search.

Internally, offensive coordinator Ben McAdoo grew to become an instantaneous favourite to be Coughlin’s successor, and studies emerged that McAdoo and Jacksonville Jaguars assistant Doug Marrone have been main the pack. Ross mentioned McAdoo’s ascent was an open secret within the Giants’ facility. Quarterback Eli Manning favored working with him, and the Giants lengthy had most well-liked continuity with their personnel.

“It was a typical ‘This is our guy, and we’re going to hire him. It doesn’t matter what anyone else does in an interview. This is who we want, and that’s it,’ ” Ross mentioned. “Far too often, that’s what has been happening. The Rooney Rule was supposed to open it up, but I think what we’ve seen is, despite that, it just hasn’t.”

On the time, Jackson additionally had agreed to interview with the Giants, and he mentioned he believes he would have had a “legitimate shot” on the job, a sentiment shared by John Wooten, then chairman of the Fritz Pollard Alliance.

However the day earlier than Jackson’s scheduled interview in New York in January 2016, the Browns provided him their head teaching place. With a airplane reserved to whisk him to satisfy with the Giants, Jackson as an alternative accepted the job in Cleveland, partially due to his familiarity with the AFC North, the place he had been offensive coordinator for the Cincinnati Bengals.

With Jackson preempting his interview, the Giants talked to just one Black candidate: then-Detroit Lions defensive coordinator Teryl Austin. Now the Steelers’ defensive coordinator, Austin has interviewed 11 instances for head teaching positions with out getting employed.

“Maybe I’m not what the owners see when they look in the mirror and they see leadership positions,” Austin informed the Related Press final 12 months. Austin and his agent, Eric Metz, declined to remark for this story.

Within the 32-team NFL, seven franchises moreover the Giants have by no means employed a Black head coach in any style, and 5 others have employed solely a Black interim coach. Some can level to a scarcity of turnover due to the lengthy, profitable tenures of sure coaches. Belichick has been answerable for the Patriots since 2000, and John Harbaugh has coached the Baltimore Ravens since 2008.

In distinction, the Giants have employed 4 coaches since 2016 — one each different season. All have been White, and none arrived with a résumé that made them stand out when put next with their Black friends.


13 NFL franchises have not had a Black full-time head coach

Since 1990, these 13 groups have had 90 full-time coaches. None of them have been Black, and simply three of them weren’t White. Of these groups’ 22 interim coaches, eight of them have been Black.

Sources: Submit reporting, Sports activities Reference

13 NFL franchises have not had a Black full-time head coach

Since 1990, these 13 groups have had 90 full-time coaches. None of them have been Black, and simply three of them weren’t White. Of these groups’ 22 interim coaches, eight of them have been Black.

Sources: Submit reporting, Sports activities Reference

13 NFL franchises have not had a Black full-time head coach

Since 1990, these 13 groups have had 90 full-time coaches. None of them have been Black, and simply three of them weren’t White. Of these groups’ 22 interim coaches, eight of them have been Black.

Sources: Submit reporting, Sports activities Reference

In 2016, the Giants promoted McAdoo, who had by no means been a head coach at any stage and had been a coordinator for simply two seasons. McAdoo’s Giants went to the playoffs in his first season earlier than they fired him after a 2-10 begin to his second.

They changed him in 2018 with Pat Shurmur, who had gone 9-23 over two seasons with the Browns in his prior head teaching expertise, then produced the identical report in two years with the Giants.

In 2020, they turned to Joe Decide, who had labored underneath Belichick because the Patriots’ particular groups coordinator, a place that seldom leads on to a head teaching job. Decide went 10-23 in two years.

Daboll, their present coach, took a extra typical path, turning into a sought-after candidate whereas coordinating the Payments’ offense.

Consolation with candidates

In 1925, Tim Mara, a bookmaker, based the Giants by paying a $500 admittance charge. In 1936, he gave Pittsburgh proprietor Artwork Rooney Sr. an insider tip on a racehorse. Rooney turned a $50,000 guess right into a fortune that enabled the franchise to remain financially solvent till it established a foothold.

The Giants and Steelers have been handed down by means of two generations, they usually have solely strengthened their bonds over the a long time. John Mara and Artwork Rooney II sit subsequent to one another at each league assembly, as their fathers and grandfathers did. Mara’s brother Chris is the daddy of a well-known actress. Her identify is Rooney Mara.

The place the franchises have separated is their report on head teaching variety. Dan Rooney, Artwork Sr.’s son, championed the rule that bears the household’s identify and compels NFL groups to interview minority candidates for prime teaching roles. In 2007, Rooney established clear standards for his subsequent coach: He needed an lively, youthful communicator with a defensive background. It helped him discover Mike Tomlin, then the 34-year-old coordinator of the Minnesota Vikings. Tomlin, considered one of three present Black full-time head coaches, has gained a Tremendous Bowl and entered this season having by no means completed with a shedding report.

[Perspective: Mike Tomlin shows how rare real opportunity is for Black coaches]

By comparability, the Giants have taken a seemingly scattershot method. Once they employed McAdoo, an offensive coach, their solely interview with a Black candidate was a defensive coordinator at a time when the NFL was trending towards placing offensive-minded coaches in cost.

Six years later, the Giants interviewed six candidates, 5 of whom had defensive backgrounds. Three of these — Flores, Patrick Graham and Leslie Frazier — are Black.

The Giants selected the one candidate with an offensive background: Daboll, who’s White.

Moderately than implementing a system that would blunt inherent bias, the Giants depend on intestine really feel and luxury with candidates, a number of individuals aware of the method mentioned, doubtlessly permitting private affinity to play a big function. When Mara interviewed Decide, he informed the Athletic in 2021, “I could envision him standing in front of the team meeting room and grabbing the players’ attention and being a leader.”

Folks aware of the workforce mentioned it was unsurprising that leaders akin to Mara relied on the connection that they had with candidates just like them.

“I would expect for someone who shares similarities to maybe identify more [with Giants executives],” mentioned former Giants large receiver David Tyree, a Tremendous Bowl hero who from 2014 to 2020 labored of their entrance workplace as director of participant improvement. “So maybe they relate better to some of the other White candidates. I don’t think that that’s evil. I think it’s a hindrance to progress.”

These aware of the hiring course of within the NFL say it varies from workforce to workforce, which specialists say fails to deal with baked-in bias. Homeowners and normal managers typically take heed to influential figures prepared to supply their suggestions: Highly effective coaches akin to Belichick and Giants legend Invoice Parcells have turn into veritable kingmakers, pushing their promising assistants to workforce homeowners.

And Rick Smith, who represents a number of coaches, mentioned brokers begin reaching out behind the scenes as quickly because it turns into clear {that a} workforce is on the lookout for a brand new chief.

Each of these networks — head coaches and brokers — are overwhelmingly White: Simply 25 of the NFL’s 192 head coaches since 1990 have been Black, based on The Submit’s evaluation. The overwhelming majority of head coaches are represented by White brokers: Matt Smith, a Black agent who counts his father, Houston Texans Coach Lovie Smith, as a consumer is a notable exception.

Three of the Giants’ 4 latest teaching hires have been represented by the identical high-powered agent, Bob LaMonte. Decide and Daboll beforehand labored for each Belichick and College of Alabama Coach Nick Saban.

As famous by a longtime NFL workforce govt who spoke on the situation of anonymity, Shurmur, Decide and Daboll — like John Mara — attended Catholic excessive faculties, a development he interpreted as an indication of Mara’s lean towards candidates with related backgrounds. Coughlin, the workforce’s head coach for 12 seasons, is also Roman Catholic.

Specialists say counting on insular networks results in related slates of candidates, even with the Rooney Rule — which largely has been thought to be insufficient to assist improve variety.

“Our networks tend to be homogenous, particularly White people’s networks. The people that owners are more likely to get referrals from are going to be White, and then the people that those people refer are also more likely to be White,” mentioned Y-Vonne Hutchinson, CEO of ReadySet, a agency that makes a speciality of variety, fairness and inclusion.

Throughout the Giants’ group, their coordinator positions even have remained comparatively White: Regardless of Mara’s advocacy for the Rooney Rule to be prolonged to coordinator positions, of the Giants’ 15 defensive coordinators since 1980, simply 4 have been Black.

The quantity is even worse on the offensive facet, which has been a dominant pipeline for head coaches: Since 1980, 13 of their 14 offensive coordinators have been White, with Jim Skipper serving as their most up-to-date Black offensive coordinator from 1997 to 1999. However Skipper is amongst those that attribute the Giants’ hiring historical past to happenstance.

“They were all good people,” he mentioned. “For them not ever hiring a Black head coach, that’s just something that happened. It’s nothing intentional — nothing at all. I was the first Black coordinator in the history of the franchise, and they were all open arms about it.”

The Giants say they’ve been making an attempt to diversify their group in any respect ranges. Hanlon, the workforce spokesman, mentioned they’ve established two committees devoted to variety — one with a rotating group of staff that studies to a different with extra senior executives.

However like almost two-thirds of the NFL’s groups, the Giants haven’t employed a workers member devoted solely to variety, fairness and inclusion — a baseline step that many in company America have taken as a safeguard in opposition to blind spots that promote unconscious bias.

“It shows it’s not a priority,” Hutchinson mentioned. “Until the culture of the league changes, everything that we’re talking about right now is just tinkering on the outside right until the ownership is really bought into DEI.”

A various panel of judges

When the Giants set out on their teaching search after the 2015 season, they might level to Reese as a key Black decision-maker. The NFL and shut watchers of the league have touted normal managers as a quickly diversifying group, with seven groups presently led by Black normal managers and the Steelers selling Omar Khan, whose mom is from Honduras and whose father is from India.

However coaches akin to Jackson have famous that the function is far much less public-facing than that of head coaches.

The coach “is the face of the franchise,” Jackson mentioned. “You hire a minority head coach, he’s going on all the billboards and all the stationery and everything that goes around the building, out to the public, everywhere. You got to feel comfortable with that, and I think that’s part of it.”

After Mara fired Reese in 2017, White males held the highest spots within the group — and have been thought of the important thing interviews to land prime jobs.

When the group was on the lookout for a brand new normal supervisor early this 12 months after the retirement of Dave Gettleman, Ran Carthon, the 49ers’ director of participant personnel, mentioned he spoke through Zoom with the three males atop the group’s hierarchy: co-owners Mara and Tisch; and Mara’s brother Chris, who’s now a senior participant personnel govt.

Carthon, the son of former participant and coach Maurice Carthon, praised the Giants’ course of. He mentioned he felt he had an honest likelihood on the job, although he knew he was competing in opposition to others with extra expertise. The job finally went to Schoen, an assistant normal supervisor with the Payments.

“Sometimes that just is what it is — guys have more experience,” Ran Carthon mentioned. “But I never once said I feel like I didn’t have an opportunity because of the color of my skin.”

Maurice Carthon watched the method unfold from a special perspective. He performed fullback for the Giants within the Nineteen Eighties and Nineties after which went into teaching, first serving as an assistant to Parcells, his coach with the Giants. He considered Wellington Mara as a caring and progressive determine.

LEFT: The San Francisco 49ers’ Ran Carthon interviewed for however did not land the Giants’ normal supervisor job. (Jed Jacobsohn/AP) RIGHT: Ran Carthon’s father, Maurice, performed for the Giants and later was an assistant coach for the Kansas Metropolis Chiefs, amongst different NFL groups. (David Eulitt/Kansas Metropolis Star/Getty Pictures)

Maurice Carthon by no means bought to be a head coach. However he handed down an NFL heritage to his son, simply as Wellington Mara had handed down one to his. After Ran interviewed with John, Maurice’s optimism that his son would run the workforce he as soon as performed for evaporated.

“When I saw the makeup of everything in the [new] Giants, it’s like they get so many — their young family, kids and nephews and all that — they get so many of those guys in the organization,” he mentioned. “So I guess, then, I think that it probably wasn’t enough room” for Ran.

Maurice Carthon had hoped that the subsequent technology of the Giants would embrace progress in racial fairness. When the time got here, he noticed solely a scarcity of curiosity.

“I always respected Wellington Mara,” he mentioned. “I can say that now. I can’t say that I sit here respecting his sons. But I know I always respected him.”

To extend variety, the make-up of the interviewer panel at each stage of the method issues as a lot because the interviewees, specialists say.

“It’s not enough to have a diverse slate [of candidates],” Jonathan McBride, world managing companion of the Variety, Fairness and Inclusion Observe at govt search agency Heidrick & Struggles, mentioned in an electronic mail. “Organizations need to have a system that intervenes at multiple points in the hiring process to ensure a different outcome from start to finish.”

In a league with one non-White majority proprietor and 24 White normal managers, the problem has gone missed. In line with the agent who was suggested to drag his Black shoppers from interviewing with the Giants, considered one of his shoppers has met with 14 workforce homeowners and executives on head teaching interviews — and simply two of them have been Black. For the Giants, significantly after Reese’s departure, White members of administration and possession have performed a main function.

Throughout his time within the Giants’ entrance workplace, Tyree discovered the workforce relied on a small group of decision-makers with related viewpoints.

“With my background as a player, front office, NFL office, you know, I think I could have provided some insight,” he mentioned. “Not to make it about me, but I think that is the only way that you can mitigate some of those blind spots.”

Longtime head athletic coach Ronnie Barnes, who’s Black, participated in interviews in the course of the course of that led to the hirings of Decide and Daboll, and former linebacker and present front-office govt Jessie Armstead and communications director Dion Dargin, who’re Black, met with candidates this 12 months, Hanlon mentioned.

However in January 2020, Hanlon mentioned, three candidates didn’t meet with any Black staff from the Giants earlier than Decide’s hiring, which Hanlon attributed to scheduling conflicts that arose as a result of some candidates have been nonetheless teaching within the playoffs. For instance, John Mara, front-office govt Kevin Abrams and Gettleman, all of whom are White, comprised the Giants’ contingent that traveled to Kansas Metropolis to interview Chiefs offensive coordinator Eric Bieniemy earlier than the job went to Decide.

This January, one of many Giants’ teaching interviews went to Patrick Graham, a Black assistant who additionally started his NFL rise as a Patriots staffer and whom Decide employed in 2020 as New York’s defensive coordinator. Regardless of the Giants’ 10-24 report underneath Decide, Graham attracted discover for his modern schemes and robust outcomes with underwhelming expertise. His gamers nicknamed him “the Black Picasso,” likening his schemes to artwork.

The Vikings additionally interviewed Graham for his or her head teaching emptiness. In Minnesota, he spoke with what “seemed like 100 people,” he mentioned, executives coming out and in of the room for 9 hours, together with just lately employed normal supervisor Kwesi Adofo-Mensah. Requested if the Vikings had a extra numerous array of individuals within the interviews than the Giants, Graham chuckled.

“Well, Kwesi is Black,” mentioned Graham, now the Las Vegas Raiders’ defensive coordinator. “As soon as that happens, yeah. There could be two people in the room, and it would be.”

Within the New York interview, Graham mentioned he spoke with John and Chris Mara, Tisch and Schoen.

Graham mentioned the Giants have been good to him and that he loved dwelling in New Jersey. He famous the Giants’ employment of Reese, however he largely deflected when requested concerning the Giants’ dedication to variety.

“I’ll say this: If you’re wondering, you just got to look at people’s track record,” he mentioned. “I don’t know what else to do. It’s like me trying to figure out what someone does on third down — I just look at the tape.”

About this story

Extra reporting by Sally Jenkins, Gus Garcia-Roberts, Jerry Brewer and Emily Giambalvo. Graphics by Artur Galocha. Modifying by Matt Rennie. Copy modifying by Michael Petre. Picture modifying by Toni L. Sandys. Design and improvement by Brianna Schroer and Joe Fox. Design modifying by Virginia Singarayar. Mission administration by Wendy Galietta.