In Himalayan Bhutan, an LGBTQ revolution is on the climb

Pema Dorji was ready by the four-faced clocktower in downtown Thimphu, one of many highest capital cities on the planet, perched at greater than 7,500 toes above sea degree. There was nobody else close by, so he was straightforward to identify, ambling on the fringe of the sq..

Though he appeared impervious to the altitude as he walked to a close-by cafe and restaurant, it was exhausting to overlook his wringing arms — his overt fidgeting. “Sorry if I seem nervous,” he mentioned. “I’ve been like this since I was a child, since I was bullied, since I was called degrading names.”

Dorji, 30, is co-founder of Queer Voices of Bhutan, and he and fellow activists have been nonetheless celebrating a vote by lawmakers in December 2020 to repeal a piece of the nation’s penal code that had criminalized “sodomy or any other sexual conduct that is against the order of nature.”

“It was a crucial step for us,” he mentioned.

The change is especially notable given Bhutan’s popularity as an inaccessible Himalayan kingdom, little influenced by the surface world. The landlocked nation with a inhabitants of solely 750,000 measures progress and development with a “gross national happiness” metric, reasonably than gross home product, and it has resisted fashionable know-how for many years.

Whereas different international locations scramble to draw vacationer {dollars}, the federal government not too long ago tripled its day by day guests tax to $200 to restrict international affect and shield the atmosphere.

However more and more cellphone protection and entry to social media have allowed LGBTQ activists to mobilize, strengthen their platform and provides a face to the group. That, mixed with a Buddhist tradition that respects variety, has helped to gas a quiet revolution on this quiet little kingdom.

Prime Minister Lotay Tshering mentioned repealing the penal code that criminalized sodomy was a giant step in rising rights for LGBTQ folks in Bhutan.

(Johannes Eisele/ AFP/Getty Photos)

“Repealing these two articles is the biggest step we could have taken now,” Prime Minister Lotay Tshering mentioned in September. “But it’s only the first step, obviously. Now, everything will be easier.”

“Same sex marriage, too?” a reporter requested.

“Everything,” he replied.


This transformation in Bhutanese legislation is a part of a sample within the area, which is seeing restrictions ease for same-sex relationships. In neighboring India, the Supreme Court docket struck down one of many world’s oldest bans on homosexual intercourse in 2018. A yr later Taiwan voted to legalize same-sex marriage, a primary for the continent, and Thailand is edging towards being subsequent in line.

In August, Singapore decriminalized homosexual intercourse, though the federal government additionally spoke of safeguarding marriage as a union between a person and girl. That double-edged announcement, as critics referred to as it, exhibits the problem governments face as they embrace marginalized communities, whereas hoping to not drive away extra conservative voters.

Bhutan’s penal code — which included the ban on homosexual intercourse — took impact in 2004, 4 years earlier than the nation held its first elections as a part of a transition from absolute monarchy to constitutional democracy. However the brand new legal guidelines have been largely primarily based on India’s penal code, drafted by British colonialists greater than 200 years in the past.

“Given the dominance of cultural systems which we received from Indian and Tibetan neighbors in the past, it was understandable why we had such a law,” mentioned Bhutanese scholar Karma Phuntsho, writer of “The History of Bhutan.”

However Indigenous Bhutanese social techniques “do not have such strong social bias and prejudices,” Phuntsho mentioned. “Today, Bhutanese can differentiate the true spiritual teachings of Buddhism from the cultural baggage that came with it. Buddhism does not teach intrinsic individuality. There is no real self or person, thus people can have different types of gender or sexual identity.

“It is good,” he added, “that we relinquish the old habit of looking down on non-straight relationships.”

“It’s all happening much more quickly than I anticipated,” mentioned Namgay Zam, the previous director of the Journalists’ Assn. of Bhutan and a long-standing ally of the queer group. “Imagine, I covered the first story on LGBTQ+ rights for the national broadcaster in 2014, less than 10 years ago. Back then we didn’t have WeChat; you couldn’t find any content about this on Facebook. Now people are sharing music videos of boys falling in love with boys.”

Zam is a well-liked public determine in Bhutan with greater than 50,000 Instagram followers and a podcast, “Hello from Bhutan!” that has not too long ago been that includes queer tales, together with an interview with the nation’s oldest recognized trans girl.

“It would be nice to see my queer friends getting married,” Zam mentioned. “I don’t know how Bhutan would feel about that, but I do know that when trans women went to change their names and gender on their national identity cards, there was no resistance. Whoever gave it to them acted from a place of compassion, the Buddhist way. … Maybe the same could happen with marriage?”


Essentially the most seen members of the queer group have comparatively giant followings, on condition that solely round half the inhabitants of Bhutan has web entry. Talking with a couple of dozen LGBTQ activists, they mentioned the pace of progress and the way protected they really feel in Bhutan.

Karma Wangchuk has 36,000 subscribers to his Instagram account, Bhutan Avenue Trend, which celebrates the nationwide costume. “We’ve actually always been open about our bodies and the way we look in Bhutan,” he mentioned. “But in the 1990s, MTV and U.S. pop culture introduced a new sense of right and wrong, a Victorian sense of morality, showing men as masculine and women looking feminine, completely eroding the ease we had with our bodies. … I want us to unlearn that side of globalization.”

“Take a look at our national dress,” Wangchuk mentioned, referring to the gho, a males’s gown, and the ladies’s full-length kira, each worn by a lot of the inhabitants each day. “The gho is basically a skirt, with a lot of brocade and color and floral patterns. There was gender fluidity in fashion here long ago, but not as a social construct.”

Wangchuk mentioned there have been “some significant wins even at a school level, where boys have been allowed to wear a kira, and girls a gho.”

“That’s down to our Buddhist culture,” he provides. “Who are we to say who is less, or who is more? My dad is an ex-monk and a hot-blooded heterosexual male, but he used to buy me dolls when I was a boy because he knew I liked them. Compassion superseded his lack of understanding.”

When Wangchuk visits his dad and mom in Trongsa, within the coronary heart of rural Bhutan, he mentioned he leads one other life there, upholding the cultural traditions of respecting elders. Wangchuk’s dad and mom can’t learn or write, a lot much less use social media, and he doesn’t wish to disrupt their world.

“My parents are old, and they’ve sacrificed so much,” he mentioned. “I don’t want to burden them with a big coming-out and have them worry about who I am going to marry and who’s going to take care of me. My compassion is rooted in Buddhism, too.”

Miss Bhutan, Tashi Choden Chombal, topped earlier this yr, posts images of herself and her girlfriend to her 28,000 followers on Instagram. She got here out to buddies on social media when she was 15, and some months in the past introduced to her household she is homosexual.

Miss Bhutan 2022, Tashi Choden attends a pride event hosted in her honour in Thimphu

Miss Bhutan, Tashi Choden Chombal, attends an LGBTQ delight occasion in Thimphu in June. She got here out to buddies on social media when she was 15, and some months in the past introduced to her household she is homosexual.

(Namgay Wangchuk / AFP/Getty Photos)

“They had a strong reaction, but I want to give hope to people like me, who come from a hard conservative family,” she mentioned. “I know about the struggle; I’ve had my mental health issues, but I believe you must keep being unapologetically authentic. My family are quite OK with me now.”

In reality, Chombal mentioned Bhutan offers hope to the area. “I’ve traveled a lot with my work, and I think it is one of the most LGBT-friendly countries I’ve been to. For example, I’m a very PDA kind of person” — keen on public shows of affection, she mentioned. “I like to show my girlfriend that I fancy her — just by holding hands or cheeky kisses. But even if people are gawking at me, Bhutan makes me feel safe, which I don’t feel in other places.”

For Dorji, Bhutan is a “place of privilege.” He’s seen “the horrors that the community can face in Nepal, in Bangladesh. If I put on makeup here, no one will punch me.”

Michelle Jana Chan is a particular correspondent.